16-bit shift register module will help you to create 16 digital outputs from only 3 digital outputs of NodeMCU. Circuit is done as shown in the diagram. Upload the following program to your NodeMCU.
Shift Register Example
Turning on the outputs of a 74HC595 using an array
* 74HC595 shift register
* LEDs attached to each of the outputs of the shift register
//Pin connected to ST_CP (12) of 74HC595
int latchPin = 0;